Rijn, known as Rembrandt.
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Harmenszoon Van Rijn, known as Rembrandt, (1606-1669).
Painter, draughtsman and engraver Dutch it is regarded as a major artist of the Western art of the XVIIe century. It is famous for its effects of clearly-obscure and it is also known for the many self-portraits which it carried out throughout its life. Born in Leyde, Rembrandt, resulting from a modest medium, receives nevertheless a neat education. It enters at the fourteen years age to the university of Leyde, which it leaves to study the painting of history near artists such as Jacob Van Swanenburgh and Pieter Lastman. After having spent six months in the workshops of his Masters, having already controlled all that one taught to him, Rembrandt turns over to Leyde, where it is established. He develops an anti-academic style which impresses (Balaam (1626), David and Goliath (1626) and a great consideration is worth to him.
The aggressive colors of its first works a taste for the brown harmonies and the effects of clearly-obscure mysterious succeeds (the Escape in Egypt (1627), Samson and Dalila (1628) who end, since 1631, with its style, all at the same time fantastic, poetic, narratif, mysterious and intense. In 1631, Rembrandt leaves for Amsterdam. Its marriage, in 1634, with Saskia Van Uylenburgh, cousin of a trader in art, lance his career, it is in liaison with easy patrons who order many portraits to him. It carries out its first corporative portrait: the Lesson of anatomy of Doctor Nicolaes Tulp (1632) remarkable fabric by its pictorial smoothness near to the art of Van Dyck. Work introduces Doctor Tulp among his friends and admirateurs, the Master surgeon is in full exercise. The corpse, whose muscles of the left arm were exposed, is of a caravagesque gray tonality. All, in the composition of the table, aims at returning the intensity of the intellectual exchange. The other portraits of years 1630 strike by their plastic force, by the simplification of the harmonies, like the rate/rhythm symbolic system of the hands and the faces, generally painted a gray bottom, which confer on the size unit and monumentality. These tendencies baroques are also present in the very many self-portraits and the representations of his wife, avoided Eastern costumes that it affectionne particularly.
In the religious subjects and the mythological scenes the composition takes as a starting point Rubens, but dramatic lighting expresses a deep emotion of the heart. During the years 1640, Rembrandt is struck by several successive mournings. Between 1635 and 1641, his Saskia wife puts at the world four children, of which three die in low age. Itself dies in 1642, leaving Rembrandt alone with his son junior, Titus.
Controlling Hendrickje Stoffels, committed about 1649, becomes her partner and her model for a great number of tables. Among the masterpieces of this period famous Ronde of night (1642) appears, which represents the agitated activity of a military company gathered behind its heads. On the basis of a usual static mode, Rembrandt paints on line the characters in order to obtain a powerful dramatic effect. The alternation of the shade and the light, of before and of the back, the movements of left on the right, of the diagonals formed by the arms, the mousquets, the flags and the spades, make it possible to the artist to make the movements presques natural.
Other works of Rembrandt depict dialogues and manage to seize one precise moment. In the table of the Pilgrims of Emmaüs (1648), the use of the light translates the significance of the scene immediately. In Bethsabée (1654) or Jacob blessing wire of Joseph (1656), the diffuse light softens the atmosphere.