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Realism. (1830 - 1870)
Realism appears in painting around 1830, it forsakes the romantic idealism, as well in its kinds as in its topics, while being opposed in particular to the subjectivity or the painting of history, to be interested in the scenes and manners of the everyday life, with a preoccupation with a truth. As a movement, it is constituted truly only between 1850 and 1870. Initially introduced by the landscape, thanks to the painters of the school of Barbizon (Theodore Rousseau, Dupre, Diaz, Daubigny), who also announce the advent of the naturalism and impressionism. Realism issues that any event, object, being, thing or action are worthy to be a pictorial subject, and that it must be returned in a veracious way. Applied to a work of art, the realistic term can have a pejorative connotation, but little by little, it was essential like a true style and an esthetics on whole share. Often employed to evoke scenes of the life of simple people, that they are campaign or townsmen, the term also covers a criticism with the social conditions. Works of the three principal French artists representative of realism, Gustave
Courbet, Honore Daumier and Jean-François Millet, are to be classified in social realism.